Bandana Ajay Vishwakarma, PhD and Amy Wesa, PhD
Acute Lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a malignancy of bone marrow. Accumulation of mutations in lymphoid progenitor cells give rise to either B-ALL or T-ALL. Treatment for ALL has improved in recent years, yet relapse of the disease and development of resistance are observed in patients. Lack of suitable and robust in vitro and in vivo drug testing platforms for primary ALL cells along with the lack of rapid development of novel therapeutics drugs encompassing the heterogeneity of the disease contribute to the delay in approved patient treatments.
We have developed a short-term culture system that supports the survival of primary B-ALL and T-ALL cells. Our ALL bank includes patient-derived specimens with complete cytogenetics and surface marker expression information. Different culture conditions were evaluated to select conditions that support the survival and maintenance of primary B-ALL and T-ALL specimens. Cell growth/viability was assessed using the Cell Titer-Glo® assay. Primary B-ALL cells survived in the optimized media for 3 days and a heterogenous dose dependent response was observed across the models to chemotherapeutic drugs doxorubicin, vincristine, imatinib and cytarabine. BCR-ABl -B-ALL patient samples were found to be resistant to imatinib in contrast to BCR-ABL+samples which were sensitive to imatinib. Similarly, culture conditions optimized for T-ALL primary cells supported the survival until day 6 and displayed a diverse response to standard of care drugs like venetoclax, imatinib, vincristine, cytarabine and methotrexate, reflecting the heterogeneity of the patient derived specimens. Immunophenotypic characterization of ALL cells grown in culture displayed retention of the B and T cells surface marker expression.